The world that we live in is full of mysteries, the oceans and seas that surround the continents are surely one of the wonders. It is said that humans have discovered less than half of the ocean. Imagining this will surely give you the chills.
Water bodies cover almost 70% of the surface of the planet. These huge bodies of water hold about 1.35 billion cubics km. of water. They comprise of plateaus, plains, valleys, trenches, and mountains present on its basin.
Interestingly enough, the mountains and plains that are underwater are actually huge in size as compared to the ones on dry land.
Mountains situated on the basin of the ocean are higher than the ones that we see on land. In a similar way, the plains that are present are flatter which makes the trenches to be deeper.
Out of all the features which the oceans offer us, the depth that these water bodies have makes them very enchanting. As a matter of fact, oceans are deep and on average, their depth surrounding the continents goes around 3.5km.
The parts of the ocean deeper than 200 meters are considered as the “deep sea.” However, few parts of some oceans go up to the depths of several km. But can we really know which is the deepest part of the ocean?
If you speak scientifically, the part of an ocean that is the deepest refers to the max deepness of a point that can be either defined or accessed. All of such deep parts of the ocean are referred to as “deep trenches”.
Also known as the zone of hadal i.e. the most bottom of a sea trench that is the deepest, is a result of plunging trenches created by shifting tectonic plates.
At present, there are a total of 46 hadal habitats spread across the oceans. Humans know only a little about regions like these as it is too difficult to explore and study such parts of oceans. This blog contains the details and names of similar points marking the deepest points that are in the oceans.
The Marina Trench that is located in the area of the western Pacific Ocean is considered the deepest part that is present on the surface of the Earth. Specifically, the Challenger Deep that is present in the Mariana Trench is known to be the deepest point.
Appearing as a scar in a crescent shape, the trench has a measurement of around 2,550 km in length, 69 km in width on average. It also has a depth of a maximum 10.91 km that is at the location of Challenger Deep. Simultaneously, with efforts took some others measured deepest portion to be at 11.034 km.
In the Mariana trench, deep holes were formed. This happened because of the collision of plates of the oceanic lithosphere that were converging. During the process of collision, a plate descended into the mantle and formed a trough due to the downward flexure that was at the line of contact present between plates.
Present towards the bottom of Marina Trench, the water’s density has been increased by a percentage of 4.96% which happened because of the high pressure present at the seabed. Regardless of this, the expeditions that were conducted many times observed that there was a presence of huge creatures like large shrimp, large crustaceans, a flatfish, and an unidentified kind of snailfish was also found.
The Tonga Trenchthat is about 10.882 kilometers below the sea level is located in the area of the southwest Pacific Ocean that is at the Subduction Zone of Kermadec Tonga’s northern end.
The deepest point of the trench of Tonga is called the Horizon Deep. After the Challenger Deep, it is considered as the second deepest point present on the earth. With this, it is the Southern Hemisphere’s deepest trench.
The Tonga Trench is spread across a vast distance of about 2,500 km far from the North Island of New Zealand that is present northeast from the island of Tonga. This trench was formed as a result of subduction that happened in the Pacific plate because of the Tonga plate.
Some researches done came to the conclusion that the movements of the plate were also the reason behind large volcanoes that were caused in the Japan trench and the Mariana trench. The marine scientists say that the sediments in the Horizon Deep have a group of roundworms present.
Being the 3rddeepest point present in this world, the Galathea Depth present in the trench of the Philippines is located 10.54 km below the level of the sea. It is also known by the name of Mindanao Trench. This submarine trench is present in the location of the Philippine Sea and it spreads to 30km width and 1,320km length towards the east of the Philippines.
This trench is one of the well-known trenches present in the Philippine Sea. This trench of the Philippines was formed as a result of a collision that occurred between the plate of Eurasian and the smaller plate of the Philippines. Other trenches present in the Philippine sea that are among the major ones include Negros Trench, Manila Trench East Luzon Trench, Cotabato Trench, and Sulu Trench.
The scientists even used to consider the Philippine Trench to be the deepest point on the planet until the 1970s. The scientists say that the Philippine trench is as young as before as 8 to 9 million years ago.
Kuril- Kamchatka Trench
Yet another deepest part of the ocean that belongs to the Pacific Ocean, is the trench of Kuril- Kamchatka which lies at a depth of 10.5 km below the level of the sea. This trench lies close to the Island of Kuril and is off the Kamchatka coast. The trench is also a reason behind the volcanic activities of a number of ocean beds that occurred in that region.
This trench was formed as a result of the subduction zone which developed in the late Cretaceous. It had formed the Kuril Island as well as the volcanic arcs of Kamchatka.
The Kermadec Trench is a submarine trench that lies on the South Pacific Ocean floor. This trench of Kermadecstretches over 1,000 km between the Hikurangi Plateau and the chain of Louisville Seamount.
It was formed because of the subduction that happened at the Pacific plate which was present under the Indo-Australian Plateau. The Kermadec Trench is 1004 km deep to the max.
Alongside the Tonga Trench that is towards the north, the Kermadec Trench makes the linear Kermadec-Tonga’s system of subduction that is 2,000 km long.
The trench is home to different kinds of species that include the species of a giant amphipod which has an approx. length of 34 cm, at the tench’s bottom. A few years earlier, the trench of Kermadec was featured in the news after the imploding of Nereus which was an unmanned submarine for research.
It has happened because of the pressure being high at 9,990 meters deep while explorations were conducted at the trench.
Situated in the area of the western Pacific Ocean, this trench has a max deepness of 9.78km. Izu-Ogasawara Trench is also known by the name of Izu-Bonin Trench. This trench extends from Japan towards the northern area of Mariana Trench. It’s also the Japan Trench’s extension. Besides the Izu-Ogasawara Trench, the Bonin Trench and the Izu Trench are present in the western Pacific Ocean.
Japan Trench is yet one more deep submarine trench that is a part of the Pacific Ring of Fire in the Pacific Ocean to the north. The trench is located towards the east of the Japanese islands. Japan trenches have a deepness of 9 km max and are spread across the Bonin Islands from the Kuril Islands. It’s an extension of the Izu-Ogasawara Trench, towards the south, and the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench, towards the south.
The trench was made because of subduction that happened in the oceanic plate of the Pacific that is under the continental Okhotsk Plate. Tsunamis along with earthquakes lead to a movement that happens on the subduction zone with this trench.
Puerto Rico Trench
The Puerto Rico trench is the 8th deepest point that is found on the surface of the earth. It is located in between the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea. It is also the deepest point that is present in that area.
The trench is 8.64 km deep, located at Milwaukee Deep. It has a length of over 800 km and is held responsible for many earthquakes and tsunamis occurring in that region.
Many efforts have been taken to totally trace this trench and how it is for a long time. The very first attempt was done by a French bathyscaphe Archimède in the year 1964. Later on, in the year 2012, a robotic vehicle was given the task to study the trench’s characteristics.
South Sandwich Trench
The Atlantic Ocean has the Puerto Rico Trench being the deepest trench and then comes the South Sandwich Trench. It is about 8.42 km deep and is described to be Meteor Deep and comes among the most noticeable trenches as it extends over 956 km.
It is situated 100 km east of the Islands of South Sandwich present in the southern Atlantic Ocean. The trench was created due to the subduction of the most southern part of the South American Plate with the small Plate of South Sandwich. This Trench is also related to a volcanic arc that is active.
The Peru–Chile Trench is also known by the name of the Atacama Trench, is situated about 160 km off the Peru and Chile coast in the Pacific Ocean (eastern). The Atacama Trench is 8.06 km deep below sea level. The point that is the deepest in the trench is called Richards Deep.
The trench extends up to a length of 5,900 km and has a width of 64 km. It also covers around 590,000 square km of area. The Peru-Chile Trench was created due to the subduction between Nazca and the South American Plates.
We hope that this blog provided you with insights regarding the deepest parts of the ocean and how it goes beyond our wildest imaginations!
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