India is an Asian country that is at the core of exchange across essential delivery courses, Covering a larger part of the Indian subcontinent,
It is encircled by water on 3 sides and is flanked by the Bay of Bengal toward the East, the Arabian Sea toward the West, and the Indian Ocean toward the South.
It has a coastline of more than 7,000 kilometers and is one of the biggest Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ) on the planet. The essential ports in India are 12 significant harbours that are all around associated and have best in class offices.
Major ports in our country like India are entirely government-based, which is under the Ministry of Ports, Shipping, and Waterways. Individual terminals and offices might be worked by private associations.
A huge piece of the terminals in India is worked by organizations like DP World (counting the recent P&O), AP Moller Terminals, and PSA International. A couple of private ports are possessed by Reliance Industries and the Adani Group.
As it lies on the Indian Ocean, these ports administration vessels inbound from the Middle East, Europe, and Africa toward the West. The principal vessels from the East sail from South East Asia, Japan, South Korea, and Australia.
A huge piece of approaching exchange from the East is oil, inbound from Iran and the Middle East. Farming produce, composts, normal metals and minerals, autos, materials, and staples are the essential merchandise that passes through Indian ports. There are additionally a few maritime bases worked under the singular Indian Naval Commands.
Given its immense oceanic significance, Indian ports play a significant role in the development and advancement of the country. In this article, we are going to discuss all 12 major ports of India.
Here is the list of all 12 ports
- PORT OF KANDLA (DEENDAYAL PORT OF TRUST) , GUJARAT
- JAWAHAR LAL NEHRU PORT TRUST _ NHAVA SHEVA, MAHARASHTRA
- PORT OF MUMBAI
- PORT OF VISHAKAPATNAM, ANDHRA PRADESH
- PORT OF CHENNAI
- PORT OF KOLKATA _ SYAMA PRASAD MOOKERJEE PORT TRUST (KoPT)
- PORT OF COCHIN, KOCHI, KERALA
- PARADIP PORT, ODISHA
- PORT OF HAZIRA
- PORT OF MUNDRA
- V.O CHIDAMBARANAR PORT ( VOCP)
- MORMUGAO PORT
So, these are all 12ports of our country. Now step-by-step let’s talk about all these in brief explanations.
PORT OF KANDLA (DEENDAYAL PORT OF TRUST) , GUJARAT
The Indian port of Kandla built an important seaport for ships coming to India via the western waters – the Arabian Sea. The port of Kandla, located in the Gulf of Kutch in Gujarat. Kutch area, was alive because it was built in the mid-1900s to meet the shortage of seaports in the western waters of the country.
Port Construction and Development
The port of Kandla is a standard bay in the mid-19th century as it dreamed of the port of choice in western India. Although the port represented a suitable maritime interface due to the status of British colonization in India at the time, the map of the times and most importantly the presence of the port of Karachi was the main seaport in western India.
It sent the package to India and Pakistan, and therefore the standard merger of the port of Karachi with all of Pakistan has put significant pressure on the strengthening of the port of Kandla. Then, after the package, they began to upgrade the infrastructure at the same time to the port of Kandla to please the visitors of the sea car site. The overuse of the port of Mumbai was an additional impetus that required extensive infrastructure.
In the mid-1950s, the port of Kandla was officially opened under the mandate of the then Prime Minister of India, Mr. Nehru. Kandla Port Trust became a facility about 10 years after this fact. The most important goal behind the production of this trust is to ensure modern and uninterrupted management of site visitors through the port on a daily basis.
JAWAHAR LAL NEHRU PORT TRUST _ NHAVA SHEVA, MAHARASHTRA
The Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust (JNPT) at Navi Mumbai (some time ago known as the Nhava Sheva Port) is India’s No. 1 holder port taking care of 55% of the compartment load across all significant ports in India. Dispatched on 26th May 1989, JNPT involves an unmistakable spot among the most present-day ports in India. It is the second most youthful and quite possibly the most current significant port of the country. At first, JN Port was intended to be a ‘satellite port’ to the Mumbai Port with a reason to decongest traffic. In the pre-change days, Mumbai port confronted a lot of issues like shallowness of the channel, blockage on streets, and rail routes through the Mumbai city connecting the port to its hinterland, just as work issues. The Port’s inability of dealing with the growing volume of current payload coordinated toward the west coast, at last prompted JN Port to turn into an autonomous port in 1989.
The port’s development is one of the specialized wonders of the nation as it was based on boggy soil in a record season of only three-and-a-half years. To upkeep the magnificence of the close-by verifiable Elephanta Caves and environmental elements, the administration utilized contemporary, refined instruments while getting rid of rock impacting. The complete land region possessing JNPT measures 2,987 hectares with enough reinforcement region for fostering extra offices for future oceanic prerequisites of the country. It was worked with a venture of Rs.1, 109 crores, out of which Rs.956.97 crores were gotten as credits from different financing organizations, with the World Bank being one of the significant patrons.
Today, JNPT is a completely automated port that utilizes the most recent innovation in dealing with load at the terminals. JNPT appreciates awesome street and rail linkages with the hinterlands just as significant business places like Thane, Nashik, and Ahmedabad, which work with superb port industry interface. It is described by profoundly robotized and nonstop tasks and has gigantic potential and the ability to foster India’s first significant center port.
PORT OF MUMBAI
Mumbai port is a significant port in India. It is a characteristic profound water seaport worked by the MbPT, and ranges 400 sq kilometers. It is arranged on the Arabian Sea and was opened by the British in the late seventeenth century. Its hinterland incorporates Central, Southern, and West India. As of now, MbPT fundamentally handles mass and general payload, while the adjoining Nhava Sheva port arrangements in compartment traffic. Nhava Sheva was at first opened to facilitate the traffic from Mumbai Port yet has continuously overwhelmed it.
This port keeps a few docks with various billets and wharves. The Victoria and Prince Docks work 20 billets and are semi-flowing in nature. The Indira Dock has 21 billets and uses a lock to permit vessels to dock consistently.
There are likewise piers on Jawahar Dweep to support rough and patrol vessels inbound from the Middle East, Iran, and different countries. Fluid payload, for example, synthetic compounds is prepared from the Pirpau breakwater. There is additionally a traveler terminal at Ballard Pier Extn. A pilot is needed for any vessel more than 100 tons gross ton.
- Port of Mumbai has finished 137 years of its administration
- It can supply drinking water to the boats both in the anchorage and at the bearth.
- Has a seaward billet Pier, which handles fluid substance and oil based goods.
- Has 24 welding plants.
- Has one level flatboat with a drifting crane.
- Four harbor pulls and two private employed pulls.
PORT OF VISHAKAPATNAM, ANDHRA PRADESH
The Port of Visakhapatnam is one of the main significant ports of India. It is found practically halfway between Kolkata on the North and Chennai towards the South on the East Coast. The ideal location of the port gives it the benefit of working with “Act East Policy”. The port contributes fundamentally to the sea exchange with the economies in the Asia and Asia Pacific areas at financial expense other than economies in the Persian Gulf, Europe, Americas and Africa.
The port began in 1933 changed itself into a significant port. With an ability to deal with in excess of 125 million tons for every annum, it is equipped for taking care of a wide range of cargoes including iron mineral, coal, unrefined petroleum, oil-based commodities, LPG, dry cargoes, fluid cargoes, and compartments.
Port of Visakhapatnam has a super cape dealing ability and the most profound compartment terminal among significant ports. The port has completely automated offices for taking care of coal, iron mineral and Alumina other than fluid and holder cargoes.
The Port assumes a reactant part for the financial development by obliging the critical businesses in the oil, steel, force and manure areas other than other assembling ventures in its hinterland. An amount of 72 million tons of load was dealt with by the port during FY 2019-20. and furthermore 65.30 Million Tons during the year 2018-19
A productive payload clearing foundation is created by the port for transportation of load by rail and street. The Port possesses and works a Railway organization of around 185 km., which is connected toward the South Central Railway and East Coast Railway of the Indian Railways. Almost 52% of the payload dealt with at the port is moved by rail.
The Port is very much associated with the Chennai-Howrah NH-16 by a 4 path availability street for development of freight towards the North and South.
The port has won numerous honors in acknowledgment of its administrations.
Port of Visakhapatnam is put in the top opening “Great” class in Port Performance by Dun and Bradstreet as a component of study organized by NITI Aayog drawing in 700 respondents container India, on subjective and quantitative parts of deals at ports.
Port of Visakhapatnam is pronounced as a second cleanest port for the third year in progression by the Ministry of Ports, Shipping and Waterways during a study done by the Quality Council of India under Swachh Bharat Mission.
The port has arisen as the victor in port help area for remarkable accomplishments in Environment Management in July 2019.
The GreenTech Foundation has introduced a “Gold” grant to the port for extraordinary accomplishments in Safety Management in the administration’s area in November 2018.
Port of Visakhapatnam has gotten independent by creating the necessary power for its utilization. The port has introduced a 10 MW Photo Voltaic Solar Energy Project and furthermore using its housetop spaces for the age of sun-based force. In acknowledgment of its endeavors, Port of Visakhapatnam has been declared as the victor in “Extraordinary Renewable Energy User” under assistance area in India as a feature of “Environmentally friendly power Energy Awards, 2018”
PORT OF CHENNAI
Once known as Madras, the Port of Chennai is called by various the “Entryway to South India.” Located on India’s southern Coromandel Coast off the Bay of Bengal, the Port of Chennai is around 565 kilometers upper east of the Port of Cochin and someone thousand kilometers southeast of the Port of Mumbai. The Port of Chennai is a huge social and administrative concentration and the capital of India’s Tamil Nadu state. In 2001, over 4.3 million people lived in the city, and over 6.5 million lived in the metropolitan space of the Port of Chennai.
The Port of Chennai is quite possibly the most prepared and most prominent business ports in India. It was a huge port for voyagers preceding taking on its work in maritime trade. The Port of Chennai is a fundamental piece of Tamil Nadu’s creating economy, particularly for the improvement in South India’s thundering gathering region. Its critical endeavors fuse preparing plants that produce vehicles, flexible, and fertilizers similarly as electrical planning and a treatment office. The huge charges leaving the Port of Chennai are iron metal, cowhide, and cotton materials. The huge imports entering the Port of Chennai are wheat, unrefined cotton, equipment, and iron and steel.
PORT OF KOLKATA _ SYAMA PRASAD MOOKERJEE PORT TRUST (KoPT)
This one is the biggest riverine ports in India, KoPT is found 200 kilometers inland and is the most seasoned port in activity. It is a homogenous freshwater port that is situated on the waterway Hooghly. The port administrations the vast majority of Northern and Eastern India, and even to adjoining nations like Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, and the Autonomous Region of Tibet. It has been being used since the mid sixteenth century and gets a sizeable piece of shipments toward the North-Eastern states.
The port is isolated into the Kolkata Dock System (KDS) and the Haldia Dock Complex (HDC). The KDS lies on the left bank and is monitored by the Gasper and Saugor pilotage stations. The Kidderpore docks run 18 billets and 3 dry docks, the Netaji Subhas docks run 10 compartments and 2 dry docks, the Budge dock has 6 wharves for oil, and the principle moorings are at Diamond Harbor, Saugor Road, and the Sandheads. What’s more, there are more than 80 piers and moors for transport breaking.
The HDC is found 60 kilometers from the pilotage stations and comprises of a seized moor framework with 12 compartments, 3 riverine piers for oil, 3 piers for barges, breakwaters for oil taking care of barges, and the Haldia Anchorage for Lighter Aboard Ship (LASH) vessels.
The dry harbors at KoPT are the biggest in India and can deal with more modest boat development, and fixes for most vessels. Because of the area, pilotage is needed for ships more than 200 GT. There are additionally beacons, light vessels, semaphores (for tide evening out), and different components to direct approaching vessels.
PORT OF COCHIN , KOCHI, KERALA
It is situated between the Willingdon island and Vallarpadam island on the South-West shore of India. This is probably the biggest port in the nation and it is situated on the intersection of the East-West Ocean Trade.
It has significant interfacing importance for both the Arabian Sea and the Indian Ocean. It measures the biggest parcel office in India. Cochin Shipyard, Kochi Marina, and Kochi treatment facilities are travelers’ spots too.
PARADIP PORT, ODISHA
Paradip is one of the Major Ports of India and late Sri Biju Patnaik, the then Chief Minister of Orissa, is the Founder of Paradip Port. Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru, the then Prime Minister of India, established the framework stone of the Port on the third January 1962 close to the Confluence of stream Mahanadi and Bay of Bengal. The legislature of India assumed control over the administration of the Port from the Government of Orissa on first June 1965. INS “Examiner” had the advantage of lady berthing in the Port on the 12th March 1966.
The Port was proclaimed open by Mr. Peter Stambolic, Prime Minister of Yugoslavia around the same time. The legislature of India pronounced Paradip as the Eighth Major Port of India on 18th April 1966 making it the FIRST MAJOR PORT in the East Coast authorized after independence. The Port of Paradip, an independent body under the Major Port Trusts Act, 1963 working under the Ministry of Shipping is controlled by a Board of Trustees set up by the Government of India headed by the Chairman, PPT. The trustees are assigned by the Government of India from different clients of the Port-like transporters, transport proprietors; Government Departments concerned, and furthermore port work. The day-to-day organization is done under broad watch and control of the Chairman, helped by the Deputy Chairman and other departmental heads.
PORT OF HAZIRA
This port is Known as Surat Port, the Adani Hazira Port is a significant LNG and petrol harbor on the Western shoreline of India, near the city of Surat. It is overseen and worked by Adani Hazira Port Private Limited (AHPPL). It is worked to deal with freight including mass, breakbulk, mass fluids, synthetics, petrol, palatable oils, compartments, autos, and raw petroleum. It is a profoundly evolved port under the Adani bunch that works as a multimodal center. It manages vessels from Europe, Africa, America, and the Middle East.
The port lies near the Delhi Mumbai Industrial Zone and is additionally near the Mumbai and Nhava Sheva Ports. Two of the significant merchandise through Hazira are coal and oil-based goods. Coal is prepared by a coordinated transport framework that has automated the coal dealing with measure. There are a few modern organizations that work from Hazira like Essar, Shell, L&T, ONGC, NTPC, GAIL, and Reliance Industries.
Another compartment dealing with terminal worked by PSA International is under development. The current offices can deal with 1 million TEUs, while the LNG terminals run by Total SA and Shell Oil can handle 2.5 million tons. There is likewise a little maritime shipyard worked by L&T out of Hazira.
PORT OF MUNDRA
Mundra port in Gujarat is the biggest exclusive port in India and a significant financial and coordinations entryway that takes into account India’s northern hinterland states with the multimodal network. It is additionally an extraordinary financial zone.
The port of Mundra is situated on the north shores of the Gulf of Kutch close to Mundra, Kutch region, in the province of Gujarat. It is the biggest private port and the biggest compartment port in India.
In FY 2020-21, Mundra port took care of 144.4 million tons (MT) of freight. The port is prepared to deal with dry freight, fluid load, rough payload, and holders. Mundra port additionally has the country’s biggest coal import terminal that works with quicker freight departure with negligible turnaround time.
Mundra port is additionally a Special Economic Zone (SEZ). SEZs are assigned obligation-free areas in India where the public traditions law doesn’t matter. The port SEZ allegedly has 8,400 hectares of land, of which half is at present empty.
V.O CHIDAMBARANAR PORT ( VOCP)
Known as the Tuticorin Port, VOCP is a significant seaport in India, situated toward the South of the central area. It is delegated a medium fake harbor crossing almost 8 sq kilometers. Worked by the VOCP Trust, it is the fourth biggest holder terminal in India, and the second in the state. This port delegates vessels from China, Europe, Sri Lanka, the Mediterranean, and the USA. It is ensured ISO 9001:2008 and ISO 14001:2004 and is ISPS Compliant.
The primary shipments incorporate modern crude material and horticultural produce. The essential imports are coal, concrete, manures, phosphate, oil and subsidiaries, coke, and consumable oils. The primary fares are general payload, crude metal and minerals, building materials, sugar, fluid load, sugar, stone, and limonite. Because of its area close to the Coromandel Coast in the Gulf of Mannar, it is normally protected. The 2 jetties range more than 7 kilometers and are separated 1.3 kilometers separated.
There are 14 billets, of which the compartment billet is overseen by PSA International. There are broad extra rooms inside the port and there is additionally a voyage terminal close by for travelers. The current internal harbor will be extended to shape an external harbor also. There is additionally a proposition to set up a maritime base under the Eastern Naval Command.
Mormugao (also known as Marmagoa) is a port city, sub-area, and region in South Goa locale, which (along with Konkan) includes India’s Goa state. Port Mormugao is the key load port (and journey port) of Goa City. Goa’s Port Vasco da Gama (Vasco City) was established in 1543 and as of now has a population of around 100,000.
Vasco Mormugao is a significant exchange port including a characteristic profound water harbor. It was the end of a measured rail line connecting the Portuguese province Estado da India (1505-1961) to the British Raj (1858-1947). As a feature of the undertaking, a British organization modernized the seaport and fabricated the rail route (formally opened in July 1886).
Marmagoa (and Goa City) are right now served exclusively by Dabolim Airport in Dabolim, found approx 5 km from Vasco. The air terminal was opened in 1955 and it’s new (initiated in 2013) terminal has a yearly traveler limit of around 8 million.
In 1963, Port Mormugao was assigned, Major Port. It is right now positioned as India’s principal iron mineral-rich port, with yearly throughput of more than 27 million tons.
So we have seen the significant ports in India. The Port area in India is being driven by high development in outer exchange. The Government of India has started the National Maritime Development Program which is a drive to foster the oceanic area.
The public authority is investing the energy to assist residents with getting occupations in this area and to develop the economy.
Q1 WHAT ARE THE 12 MAJOR PORTS OF INDIA?
ANS– India has 12 significant ports heavily influenced by the government — Deendayal (past Kandla), Mumbai, JNPT, Mormugao, New Mangalore, Cochin, Chennai, Kamarajar (prior Ennore), V.O. Chidambaranar, Visakhapatnam, Paradip, and Kolkata (counting Haldia).
Q2 WHAT ARE THE WORK PROCESS OF PORTS?
ANS- Exercises related with ports incorporate activity of vessels, freight taking care of hardware, trains, trucks, vehicles, and capacity and warehousing offices identified with the transportation of load or travelers just as the turn of events and upkeep of supporting foundation.
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