Bangladesh is a stunningly beautiful land. Sand beaches, wildlife, forests, historical landmarks, and resorts are all part of Bangladesh tourism. This South Asian land is known for its famous histories and breathtaking scenery. Bangladesh’s southern coast faces the Bay of Bengal, while India shares the country’s north, west, and east borders. The Ganges delta encompasses the area of Bangladesh and is regarded a highly fertile agricultural and farming zone. Rivers, lakes, and deltas abound on the land.
Bangladesh is the sovereign part of the historic and ethnolinguistic Bengal area, which was divided following British India’s partition in 1947. The country’s Muslim majority is Bengali. As the home of the states of Vanga, Pundra, Gangaridai, Gauda, Samatata, and Harikela, ancient Bengal was an important cultural hub in the Indian subcontinent. The last pre-Islamic rulers of Bengal were the Mauryan, Gupta, Pala, Sena, Chandra, and Deva kingdoms.
In 1204, Bakhtiar Khalji overran northern Bengal and attacked Tibet, beginning the Muslim invasion of Bengal. In the 14th century, three city-states arose as part of the Delhi Sultanate, with Sonargaon ruling over much of eastern Bengal. Sultan Balkhi, Shah Jalal, and Shah Makhdum Rupos were Sufi missionary leaders who assisted in the development of Muslim power. The territory was consolidated into the Bengal Sultanate, which was an independent and unitary state.
Eastern Bengal thrived under Mughal control as a melting pot of Muslims in the eastern subcontinent, attracting traders from all over the world. Under the Nawabs of Bengal in the 18th century, Mughal Bengal became more forceful and independent. Mir Jafar’s defection resulted in Nawab Siraj-ud-defeat Daulah’s by the British East India Company in 1757, and eventual British supremacy over South Asia.
The Bengal Presidency grew to be British India’s largest administrative unit. Eastern Bengal and Assam were formed in 1905, paving the way for Bangladesh to arise. The first Prime Minister of Bengal backed the Lahore Resolution in 1940, hoping to establish a state in eastern South Asia. Bengal’s Prime Minister suggested a Bengali sovereign state before to the partition of Bengal. Bangladesh’s current territorial limit was determined via a referendum and the announcement of the Radcliffe Line.
East Bengal overtook Punjab as Pakistan’s most populous province in 1947. East Pakistan was renamed, and Dhaka became the country’s legislative capital. The rise of Bengali nationalism and pro-democracy movements in East Pakistan was fueled by the Bengali Language Movement in 1952, the East Bengali legislative election in 1954, the Pakistani coup d’état in 1958, the Six Point Movement in 1966, and the Pakistani general election in 1970.
The Bangladesh Liberation War began in 1971, when the Pakistani military junta refused to hand over power to the Awami League, led by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman. The Mukti Bahini, assisted by India, conducted a guerrilla war. The genocide in Bangladesh in 1971 and the slaughter of pro-independence Bengali civilians, including intellectuals, occurred during the conflict.
In 1972, the new state of Bangladesh became South Asia’s first constitutionally secular state. In 1988, Islam was declared the state religion. The Supreme Court of Bangladesh confirmed secular values in the constitution in 2010.
Bangladesh is a Westminster-style unitary parliamentary constitutional republic. Bangladesh is the third-largest Muslim-majority country in the world, with Bengalis accounting for 98 percent of the overall population. Eight administrative divisions and 64 districts make up the country. After India and Pakistan, it has the third-largest military in South Asia, and it has been a key contributor to UN peacekeeping missions.
Bangladesh, a middle power in the Indo-Pacific, is an emerging economy that is the world’s 33rd largest by nominal GDP and the 29th largest by PPP. As a result of the genocide against the Rohingya people, it now has one of the world’s largest refugee populations.
Climate change, poverty, illiteracy, corruption, authoritarianism, and human rights violations are just a few of Bangladesh’s problems. However, since 2011, the poverty rate has expected by half, and the country is on track to become a middle-income country by the end of this decade. Bangladesh is now one of the world’s largest modern garment exporters, having once been a historic center of the muslin fabric trade.
When Prime Minister-elect Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was blocked from assuming office, the Bengali people were outraged. Civil disobedience and aspirations for independence erupted across East Pakistan. On March 7, 1971, Mujib spoke to a pro-independence rally in Dacca (as Dhaka was previously spelt in English), when he remarked, “This time, the struggle is for our liberty. This time, the struggle is for our freedom.”
On Pakistan’s Republic Day, March 23, the Bangladesh flag was flown for the first time. Later that evening, on March 25, the Pakistani military junta led by Yahya Khan launched Operation Searchlight, a concerted military assault on East Pakistan. Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was apprehended and flown to Karachi by the Pakistan Army.
However, before his incarceration, Mujib led Bangladesh’s independence at midnight on March 26th, sparking the Bangladesh Liberation War within hours. During the 1971 Bangladesh genocide, the Pakistan Army and its local supporters continued to slaughter Bengalis, particularly students, intellectuals, political figures, and Hindus.
During the conflict, the Mukti Bahini, a guerilla resistance group, also abused human rights. An estimated 0.3 to 3.0 million people were killed in the war, and many million refugees sought shelter in neighboring India.
As word of the crimes traveled around the world, public opinion swung against Pakistan; significant political and artistic personalities in the West, including Ted Kennedy, George Harrison, Bob Dylan, Joan Baez, Victoria Ocampo, and André Malraux, backed the Bangladesh cause. To collect donations for Bangladeshi refugees, the Concert for Bangladesh was held at Madison Square Garden in New York City. Harrison and Indian Bengali sitarist Ravi Shankar organized the first significant benefit concert in history.
Bengali nationalists declared independence and formed the Mukti Bahini during the Bangladesh Liberation War (the Bangladeshi National Liberation Army). On April 17, 1971, the Provisional Government of Bangladesh was founded, with the Constituent Legislature of Bangladesh consisting of 469 elected members of the Pakistani national assembly and East Pakistani provincial assemblies.
The provisional administration published a proclamation that formed the country’s interim constitution, stating as key principles “equality, human dignity, and social justice.” Due to Mujib’s incarceration, Acting President Syed Nazrul Islam was appointed, and Tajuddin Ahmad was chosen Bangladesh’s first Prime Minister.
The Bangladesh Formations, which constituted the military wing of the temporary government, were formed by the Mukti Bahini and other Bengali guerrilla forces. The forces held the countryside during the war, led by General M. A. G. Osmani and eleven sector commanders. They engaged in guerrilla warfare against Pakistani forces on a large scale. As a result, Bangladesh Forces liberated practically the whole country by late November, with the exception of Dacca, the capital.
As a result, on December 2, 1971, the Pakistan Army led an offensive on India’s western front. On both the western and eastern fronts, India replied. In mid-December, the capital Dacca was liberated from Pakistani occupation thanks to a coordinated ground offensive by Bangladeshi and Indian forces, as well as air strikes by both India and the small Bangladeshi air force.
Both the Soviet Union and the United States committed naval forces to the Bay of Bengal in a Cold War standoff during the last stages of the war. On December 16, 1971, Pakistani armed forces surrendered to the Bangladesh-India Allied Forces, ending a nine-month war. Under international pressure, Pakistan released Rahman from prison on January 8, 1972, and the British Royal Air Force flew him to Dacca for a million-strong homecoming.
Three months after the war ended, on March 12, 1972, the remaining Indian forces were removed. Bangladesh’s right to self-determination was recognised all around the world. 86 countries have recognised the new state by August 1972. Following pressure from the majority of Muslim countries, Pakistan recognised Bangladesh in 1974.
Sheikh Mujibur Rahman established one-party communist government under BAKSAL in January 1975. All newspapers were prohibited, with the exception of four state-owned periodicals, and the constitution was altered to increase Rahman more power. On August 15, 1975, he was assassinated during a coup.
For four months, martial law was declared, and the presidency was handed over to usurper Khondaker Mostaq Ahmad. Bangladeshis hold Ahmad in high respect as a traitor. On November 4, 1975, Tajuddin Ahmad, the country’s first prime minister, and four other independence leaders were assassinated. On November 6, 1975, the military installed Chief Justice Abu Sadat Mohammad Sayem as president. For three years, Bangladesh was governed by a military junta led by the Chief Martial Law Administrator.
Ziaur Rahman, the army head, was elected president in 1977. In 1979, Rahman re-formed multiparty politics, privatized industries and newspapers, established BEPZA, and held the country’s second general election. The Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP) governed until 1982 under a semi-presidential government. Rahman was assassinated in 1981, and Vice-President Abdus Sattar took his place. In the 1981 presidential election, Sattar earned 65.5 percent of the vote.
Sattar was deposed in the 1982 Bangladesh coup d’état after only a year in power. The president was installed as Chief Justice A. F. M. Ahsanuddin Chowdhury, but army chief Hussain Muhammad Ershad became the country’s de facto leader and took the presidency in 1983. In 1986, Ershad lifted martial law. He governed with four successive prime ministers (Ataur Rahman Khan, Mizanur Rahman Chowdhury, Moudud Ahmed, and Kazi Zafar Ahmed) and a Jatiyo Party-dominated parliament.
In 1986 and 1988, general elections were held, though the opposition BNP and Awami League boycotted the latter. Ershad campaigned for administrative decentralisation, dividing the country into 64 districts, and in 1988, he persuaded Parliament to declare Islam to be the state religion. After being forced to retire by a major rebellion in 1990, Chief Justice Shahabuddin Ahmed led the country’s first caretaker government as part of the country’s transition to parliamentary governance.
Bangladesh, located on the Bay of Bengal, is a small, beautiful country in South Asia. It is almost totally bordered by India, with the exception of a minor border to the southeast with Myanmar, while it is close to Nepal, Bhutan, and China.
There are three regions in the country. The rich Ganges Delta, the world’s largest river delta, dominates the majority of the country. The Madhupur and Barind plateaus go through the country’s northwest and center regions. Evergreen home ranges can be found in the northeast and southeast.
The Ganges (local name Padma or Pôdda), Brahmaputra (Jamuna or Jomuna), and Meghna rivers, as well as their various tributaries, constitute the Ganges delta. The Ganges joins the Jamuna (Brahmaputra’s main canal) and then the Meghna before flowing into the Bay of Bengal. Bangladesh is known as the “Land of Rivers” because it has 57 trans-border rivers. However, because the country is a lower riparian state to India, this makes resolving water issues politically difficult in most circumstances.
Bangladesh is primarily made up of fertile flat land. The majority of it is below 12 meters (39 feet) above sea level, and it is estimated that roughly 10% of its land would be drowned if sea levels rose by 1 meter (3.3 ft). Forests cover 17 percent of the country, while hill systems cover another 12 percent.
The country’s haor wetlands are important to environmental scientists around the world. Saka Haphong (also known as Mowdok Mual) near the Myanmar border is believed to be Bangladesh’s highest peak, with an elevation of 1,064 meters (3,491 feet). However, it is not usually recognised as the country’s highest point, with most sources naming Keokradong as the winner.
Barisal (formally Barishal), Chittagong (officially Chattogram), Dhaka, Khulna, Mymensingh, Rajshahi, Rangpur, and Sylhet are the eight administrative divisions of Bangladesh, each named after their respective divisional headquarters.
Districts are subdivided from divisions (zila). Bangladesh is subdivided into 64 districts, each of which is further divided into upazila (subdistricts) or thana. Except in metropolitan regions, each police station’s area is divided into many unions, with each union containing multiple villages. Police stations in urban regions are divided into wards, which are further divided into mahallas.
At the divisional and district levels, there are no elected leaders, and the administration is made up entirely of government officials. A chairperson and a number of members are directly held in each union (or ward). In 1997, a parliamentary legislation was approved allowing female candidates to run for three seats (out of twelve) in each union. Bangladesh’s climate is tropical, with a mild winter from October to March and a hot, humid summer from March to June, straddling the Tropic of Cancer.
The country has never had an air temperature below 0 degrees Celsius (32 degrees Fahrenheit), with a record low of 1.1 degrees Celsius (34.0 degrees Fahrenheit) on February 3, 1905 in the northwest city of Dinajpur. The monsoon season, which lasts from June to October and brings the majority of the country’s rainfall, is hot and humid.
Natural disasters such as floods, tropical cyclones, tornadoes, and tidal bores strike nearly every year, exacerbated by deforestation, soil degradation, and erosion. The cyclones of 1970 and 1991 were very destructive, with the latter killing over 140,000 people. Bangladesh saw the worst flooding in modern history in September 1998.
1,000 people were killed and 30 million more were made homeless as the Brahmaputra, Ganges, and Meghna spilt over and swallowed 300,000 houses, 9,700 km (6,000 mi) of road, and 2,700 km (1,700 mi) of embankment; 135,000 cattle were killed; 50 km2 (19 sq mi) of land was destroyed; and 11,000 km (6,800 mi) of roads were damaged or destroyed.
Two-thirds of the country was effectively submerged. The severity of the flooding was linked to extremely heavy monsoon rains, the release of equally extraordinarily huge amounts of melt water from the Himalayas, and widespread tree chopping for firewood or animal husbandry (which would have intercepted rain water).
The human toll and economic damage caused by floods and cyclones have decreased over time as a result of different international and national disaster risk reduction measures. A similar country-wide flood in 2007, which displaced five million people and killed roughly 500 individuals, had a similar death toll.
Bangladesh is recognised one of the most susceptible countries to climate change. Over the course of a century, the Bay of Bengal has been hit by 508 cyclones, with 17 percent of them thought to have made landfall in Bangladesh.
As the climate changes, natural hazards such as greater rainfall, rising sea levels, and tropical cyclones are expected to increase, wreaking havoc on agriculture, water and food security, human health, and shelter. By 2050, a 3 foot rise in sea levels is estimated to inundate 20% of the land and displacing more than 30 million people. Bangladesh has created the Bangladesh Delta Plan 2100 to counter the problem of rising sea levels.
On May 3, 1994, Bangladesh ratified the Rio Convention on Biological Diversity. The country’s National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan were set to be revised in 2014. Bangladesh is part of the Indomalayan area, with four terrestrial ecoregions: the Lower Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests, the Mizoram–Manipur–Kachin rain forests, the Sundarbans freshwater swamp forests, and the Sundarbans mangroves.
A long seacoast, numerous rivers and tributaries, lakes, wetlands, evergreen forests, semi-evergreen forests, hill forests, moist deciduous forests, freshwater swamp forests, and flat land with tall grass are all part of its environment. The Bangladesh Plain is known for its famous alluvial soil, which allows for large farming.
Villages are sometimes buried in forests of mango, jackfruit, bamboo, betel nut, coconut, and date palm, and the country is dominated by lush flora. There are up to 6000 plant species in the country, including 5000 flowering plants. Many aquatic plants can be found in water bodies and wetland systems. During the monsoon season, water lilies and lotuses bloom in abundance. There are 50 wildlife sanctuaries in the country.
Much of the Sundarbans, the world’s largest mangrove forest, is found in Bangladesh, encompassing 6,000 km2 in the southwest coastal region. The South, East, and West zones are divided into three protected sanctuaries. The forest has been designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Haor wetlands, a unique environment, may be found in the northeastern Sylhet region.
Tropical and subtropical coniferous forests, a freshwater marsh forest, and mixed deciduous forests are also found here. Evergreen and semi-evergreen highland jungles cover the southeastern Chittagong region. The plainland Sal forest runs through the districts of Gazipur, Tangail, and Mymensingh in central Bangladesh. The sole coral reef in the country is on St. Martin’s Island.
Bangladesh’s forests, marshes, woodlands, and hills are home to a diverse range of wildlife. The great majority of animals live in a 150,000 km2 habitat. The Sundarbans’ top predators are the Bengal tiger, clouded leopard, saltwater crocodile, black panther, and fishing cat. The Asian elephant, hoolock gibbon, Asian black bear, and oriental pied hornbill can all be found in northern and eastern Bangladesh.
Chital deer can be found in abundance in southern woods. The black giant squirrel, capped langur, Bengal fox, sambar deer, jungle cat, king cobra, wild boar, mongooses, pangolins, pythons, and water monitors are among the other animals found. Bangladesh is home to some of the world’s largest populations of Irrawaddy and Ganges dolphins. According to a census conducted in 2009, there are 6,000 Irrawaddy dolphins living in Bangladesh’s littoral rivers. Amphibians, reptiles, marine reptiles, and marine mammals abound throughout the country. It also includes 628 different bird species.
The one-horned and two-horned rhinoceros, as well as the common peafowl, became extinct in Bangladesh within the last century. The human population is concentrated in metropolitan areas, which helps to reduce deforestation. Natural environments have been threatened by rapid urbanization. Despite the fact that many regions are legally protected, this expansion poses a threat to some Bangladeshi wildlife. Furthermore, Bangladesh has little biocapacity.
Bangladesh has 0.4 global hectares of biocapacity per person on its world in 2016, which was roughly one-fourth of the worldwide average. In 2016, they consumed 0.84 global hectares of biocapacity, which is equivalent to their ecological footprint of consumption. As a result, Bangladesh has a biocapacity shortfall.
In 1995, the Bangladesh Environment Conservation Act was passed. Several areas, including wetlands, forests, and rivers, have been recognized as Ecologically Critical Areas by the government. The Sundarbans Tiger Project and the Bangladesh Bear Project are two important conservation endeavors.
How To Reach Bangladesh
1. By Air
Bangladesh is connected to the rest of the world by air. In reality, it is connected to 27 major cities throughout the world with direct flights to Dhaka, the country’s capital.
2. By Rail
Rail travel is not an option for reaching inside the country.
3. By Road
Road travel is an option for reaching to the country, but only from India. Driving into Bangladesh is possible from two sites on the border: Benapol in Kolkata and Chilihati in Darjeeling.
Best Time To Visit Bangladesh
From November to March, when the weather is warm and bright, is the dry season. In November, when cyclones are still sweeping the coast, there are lingering showers in the southeast. With warm sunny days and milder evenings, December is one of the best times to visit Bangladesh.
Around this time of year, Dhaka is a pleasant 25°C. Between March and May, Bangladesh experiences a hot spring, with temperatures reaching over 40°C. The oppressive humidity has triggered amazing thunderstorms. It’s interrupted by a long, rainy monsoon season that begins in late May and lasts until October.
Bangladesh’s Most Beautiful Places to Visit
When compiling a list of the best places in a country, there is certain to be some debate, especially if the list is arranged in a specific order.
After working in the tourism industry for several years and traveling to every area of Bangladesh, I believe this is the best place to visit in Bangladesh. Let me know if you agree or disagree with me, and if you have any recommendations for improving the list in the comments.
1. Mangrove Forest of the Sundarbans
The Sundarbans, the world’s biggest mangrove forest, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The Sundarbans is located between two countries: Bangladesh and India. Bangladesh is home to the majority of the forest.
It is home to the world’s only remaining Bengal tigers, as well as a diverse range of other species. The Sundarbans’ environment is soothing, and visiting this forest could be a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity. As a number, Sundarbans is ranked first among the best places to visit in Bangladesh on our list.
2. Hill-Tracts in Chittagong
The Chittagong Hill-Tracts area is a naturally beautiful place with many beautiful hills. Many Bangladeshi tribal communities call it home. This is Bangladesh’s best adventure tourism place. If you can get permission from the local administration, you can walk deep inside the highlands for several days.
In this location, you can also meet and learn about various indigenous communities. The Sangu River, Bangladesh’s most beautiful river, is located in this area. During the rains, a boat ride in Sangu might be a fantastic experience. On our list of the best places to visit in Bangladesh, the Chittagong hill-tracts are ranked second.
Srimangal, Bangladesh’s tea capital, is located in the country’s northeastern region. Everywhere you go in this city, you’ll discover lush green tea gardens. This is one of the rare places in the country where you may not see anyone else except you if you look around.
It’s a pretty pleasant and relaxing place. One of the best things to do in Bangladesh is to cycle around the tea plantations’ pathways. The Lawachhara National Park and the Hamham waterfalls are well worth seeing. You might easily spend a few days here surrounded by nature. Our list of the best places to visit in Bangladesh includes Srimangal as number three.
The Chittagong Hill-Tracts area includes the district of Rangamti. Kaptai Lake is the main reason for visiting this location. It’s a beautiful man-made lake surrounded by beautiful greenery. The best thing to do in Rangamati is to spend the entire day on a boat on Kaptai Lake. Many ethnic groups call Rangamati home.
You can visit good quality handmade fabrics at their handicraft market. Rajban Bihara, a Buddhist monastery, is also worth visiting. Rangamati is ranked fourth among the best places to visit in Bangladesh on our list.
In the northwestern area of Bangladesh, there is a tiny place named Paharpur, which is home to Bangladesh’s most remarkable archeological site, the Somapuri Mahabhihara, which is a UNESCO world heritage site.
In the eighth century, it was the second-largest Buddhist monastery south of the Himalayas. Monks from all over the world used to flock here for higher education while it was at its time. At the time, it was one of the best Buddhist monasteries in the world. On our list of the best places to visit in Bangladesh, Paharpur comes in at number five.
6. St. Martin’s Island
St. Martin’s Island is a beautiful coral island in Bangladesh’s Bay of Bengal. This is the best place to visit in Bangladesh for beach lovers. The majority of local tourists visit this island for a day vacation.
It gets really quiet once they go in the afternoon. When you’re tired of traveling for several weeks around the country, you can stay in any resort with a private beach and rest on the island for a few days. Our list of the best places to visit in Bangladesh includes St. Martin’s Island at number six.
Gaur, on the India-Bangladesh border, is a ruined city from the ancient and medieval periods. From the 12th through the 14th centuries, the city was at its time. It was designated as the Bengal region’s capital. In the medieval period, it was a prosperous and opulent city that was eventually abandoned due to cholera.
Some of Gaur’s beautiful mosques are still hidden under mango trees. Bangladesh’s archaeological agency has done some incredible restoration work on some of these mosques. For history buffs, this is a must-see location. On our list of the best places to visit in Bangladesh, Gaur is ranked number seven.
Sylhet is a naturally beautiful place in Bangladesh’s northeast, adjacent to the Indian state of Meghalaya. There are plenty beautiful places to visit. Sylhet’s attractions include the green-water canal Lalakhal, the stone-collecting area Jaflong, the Ratargul swamp forest, and several of the city’s tea gardens.
In Sylhet, particularly in Jaflong, you can meet a variety of indigenous people. The Khasia tribal people grow betel leaves in the forest, and you can meet them here. Our list of the best places to visit in Bangladesh includes Sylhet at number eight.